Dr. Judith M. Newman



the intended readers of a text
claim thesis or main point, especially in persuasive writing
cluster an invention technique; a way of mapping thoughts about a topic showing how the ideas are connected. The map suggests an organizational pattern for main ideas and supporting details
coherence logically connected sense that holds parts of a text together
conventions rules of standard English usage, capitalization, punctuation, paragraphing, and spelling
craft choices an author/poet makes when writing a text (e.g., organizational pattern, style, vocabulary, images, symbols, point of view, audience)
drafts versions of a text
edit polishing a text to make it optimally readable; checking organization, style, voice...
expository writing that explains an idea and informs the reader
foreshadowing giving hints or clues of what might happen subsequently in the text
form organization of specific types of writing within a general category of purpose/mode (e.g., if the form is editorial, then purpose/mode is persuasive or possibly expository; if the form is clinical trial, then purpose/mode is expository)
format refers to layout or visual presentation of text
free writing an invention technique; it involves drafting quickly, without stopping, without editing, or self-correcting to discover what you know, think, or feel
interpretive community the interpretive consensus whereby readers share meaning
intertextuality past experience of content, form, genre, voice and style that readers bring to any new text
lede The start of a piece of writing. It is spelled this way to prevent confusion with lead, the metal that was used extensively in hot-type days, and a term that refers to the spacing of lines in a printed text
mode type of writing determined by the writer's purpose (e.g., If your purpose is to explain, then the mode is expository.); often used interchangeably with purpose
narrative presentation of a series of events in a purposeful sequence, either fictional or factual
organizer frameworks, maps, outlines, grids, or diagrams used to put thoughts in order
parallel structure the repeating of phrases and sentences that are syntactically similar (e.g., phrases all starting with verbs, same tense)
paraphrase restating the meaning in own words, retaining all of the ideas without making an interpretation or evaluation
person point of view; the perspective from which the writer writes (e.g., first person, third person)
persuasive writing that convinces the designated audience to support a point of view, make a decision, or take an action
"prewriting” the thinking and planning the writer does before drafting, which includes considering the topic, audience, and purpose; gathering information; choosing a form; determining the role of the writer; and making a plan
proof preparing writing for pubication and or dissemination by checking spelling, punctuation, capitalization, usage, paragraph indentation, neatness, and legibility
revise/revision the process of reworking or re-seeing writing, which includes: considering changes in audience, purpose, focus, organization, style; elaborating, emphasizing, clarifying, or simplifying text (adding, deleting, reordering, or substituting)
rhetorical question a question where an answer is not expected; often used to involve the audience and create interest
story frame a graphic organizer used to plan the development of a text or visual/multi-media presentation
summarize condense the main points using as few words as possible and written in own words
syntax the way words, phrases, and clauses are combined to form sentence order (e.g., in English, subject – verb – object is a common pattern.)
synthesize the pulling together of ideas or information to develop a common framework for understanding or to create a new idea; writers synthesize when they create, imagine, or combine ideas
technical writing type of expository writing (or sometimes persuasive writing) most often used to convey information (or to convince others) for technical or business purposes
transitions words or phrases that help make smooth connections between parts of a text
voice writing that captures the correct level of distance, formality, or personality for the purpose of the writing and the audience
word web a graphic organizer, created to gather and connect facts, ideas, concepts, and/or words